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ryegrass scientific name

Weed Tech 21: 477–482 (2006).doi 10.1614/WT-06-168.1", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lolium&oldid=993752444, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 08:26. Sowing/planting rates as single species Pasture: 25-30 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n) Lawn: 1-2 kg/100 sqm Parks, rehabilitation or revegetation single species: 75 kg to 100 kg per hectare. English: annual ryegrass; westerwold ryegrass; Spanish: ballico de Italia; … Duration: Annual Stem Texture: Hairless/Smooth Growth Habit: Bunch grass, Grasses Season: Cool Distribution: 01 - Pineywoods, 02 - Gulf Prairies and Marshes, 03 - Post Oak Savannah, 04 - Blackland Prairies, 05 - Cross Timbers and Prairies, 07 - Edwards Plateau, 08 - Rolling Plains, 09 - High Plains, 10 - Trans-Pecos Annual ryegrass (L. rigidum) is one of the most serious and costly weeds of cropping systems in southern Australia, and herbicide resistance is a frequent problem. [3][4] It is often called ryegrass, but this term is sometimes used to refer to grasses in other genera. Very strong cool season growth and nutritive value Hybrid ryegrass (short-lived type) 1. Plant Characteristics. Sow at 20-25kg/ha alone or 5-15kg/ha as part of a mix. The base (below ground) is often reddish purple in colour and seedlings exude a clear sap when crushed.Mature plants are erect and up to 900 millimetres (mm) in height. Naturalised in all Australian States. multiflorum . The scientific name of Perennial Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. The flower spikelets grow in the angles of a zigzag rachis (flower stem). Several former Lolium species now regarded as part of other genera: Castellia, Enteropogon, × Festulolium, Hainardia, Lepturus, Melica, and Vulpia. It grows vigorously in winter and early spring. This species is grown as a pasture grass and is also deliberately planted in recreation areas in the temperate regions of Australia. Annual and Italian ryegrass These two ryegrass species are described together because they are used in similar situations, for their fast establishment and high winter - early spr… Other Common Name: Annual Rye-grass: Status: Native to the Mediterranean. Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne . By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/ryegrass, The Spruce - Annual Ryegrass Plant Information, United States Department of Agriculture - Ryegrass, rye grass - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Italian ryegrass; Other Scientific Names. Grasses: Hybrid ryegrass. Plant Characteristics. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The plants are unrelated to cereal rye (Secale cereale). Lolium is a genus of tufted grasses in the bluegrass subfamily of the grass family. There is a large range of cultivars. Lightly harrow and roll to improve germination. There's more than one kind of ryegrass; in fact, three different types of grasses contain \"rye\" in their names. aristatum . Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Italian ryegrass. Scientific name — Secale Cereale, cereal ryegrass is noted for its late fall to early spring nutrient scavenging and grazing potential, and is taller and quicker-growing than wheat. Subordinate Taxa. Common Name: Crimson Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium incarnatum Family: Fabaceae Cool-Season Legumes. Lolium multiflorum Lam. [15], World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Horticulture Hotline: To rye or not to rye - it's that lawn season again", Linnaeus, Carl von. Lolium perenne, common name perennial ryegrass, English ryegrass, winter ryegrass, or ray grass, is a grass from the family Poaceae. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). The plants have extensive root systems and are useful for erosion control. The leaves are shiny, especially on the back of the blade. Annual ryegrass is hairless and has bright green, narrow leaves. Diploid ryegrass has a relatively small seed compared to tetraploid ryegrass and may be sown at a lighter rate. Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. The scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass is Lolium multiflorum Lamarck (Munz, 1973). Ryegrass is ideally sown in late summer or spring. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of … Lolium perenne ssp. Annual ryegrass is also called Italian ryegrass and is closely related to perennial ryegrasses. Both names essentially mean the same thing, and there really isn’t that much more to say about the name. Annual - Less than one year Italian - 1-2 years Short rotation - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1. is a fungal body or sclerotium often found in many cereal grasses. A number of species are grown as forage and lawn grasses in temperate Eurasia and Africa, and both perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum) are important constituents of pasture and lawn-seed mixtures used around the world. The scientific name of Perennial ryegrass is Lolium Perenne, and the scientific name of annual ryegrass is Lolium Multiflorum. Habit. Preferred Scientific Name. Name: Ryegrass - Annual (Lolium rigidum) Description: Annual self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring growing ryegrass. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as a serious threat to one or more natural vegetation formations i… The plant is often infected with a poisonous fungus (Neotyphodium species) that can be dangerous to grazing animals. Typical yields of annual ryegrass are 2 to 6 tons/ac. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Lolium perenne. Lower stems and nodes are often purplish or reddish. [13][14] In the northern part of the state, productivity is seen from mid-February to May. Preferred Scientific Name. Lolium perenne L. – perennial ryegrass. Ryegrass Scientific Name. Omissions? Common Name: Red Clover Scientific Name: Trifolium pratense Family: Fabaceae English: English ryegrass; Italian ryegrass; perennial rye grass; Spanish: ballico perenne; raigras ingles; vallico; French: ivraie vivace; ray-grass anglais; Portuguese: azevem-vivaz; gazao Annual ryegrass is used mainly for pastures. It is a purplish black, banana-shaped, 0.25- to 0.75-inchlong body replacing a grain in the seed head. Sow into bared ground if direct drilling. The ergot of ryegrass (Lolium spp.) Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class Like many cool-sea… Annual ryegrass toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can be a problem with this species. Cereal ryegrass germinates at temperatures as low as 34° F, is also drought-resistant, and flourishes in light soils, where most ryegrasses have problems growing. Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass can hybridize, result… The tufted plants reach about 0.3 to 1 metre (1 to 3.3 feet) tall and have tough dark green leaves. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). ... Scientific Name Lolium multiflorum. Ryegrass should not be confused with rye, which is a grain crop. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. multiflorum ← → Other Common Names: annual ryegrass. The primary species found worldwide and used both for lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Scientific names of various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart. The culm is pale green, terete, glabrous, and unbranched. It is found throughout California to about 3300 feet (1000 m), except in deserts and the Great Basin and inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed places. Tennis courts, including those at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are planted with ryegrass. The different kinds have different uses. Lolium perenne (Table 1) Lolium x boucheanumKunth (Table 2) - Refer Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re description etc. Phantom is an annual tetraploid ryegrass selected for maximum dry matter production during winter and spring. It is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world. Perennial ryegrass is related to the turf grass known as annual ryegrass, but these two plants differ, too. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. Leaves are long and narrow, without hairs, are ribbed on the upper surface and have a shiny lower surface. It is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year. In the Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be expected from November to May. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lolium perenne ssp. Annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. (1779) Preferred Common Name. Ryegrass varies from the most persistent (perennial ryegrass) to the least persistent (annual ryegrass) and can be broadly categorised by how long they live or persist. Lolium perenne var. Lolium is native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in Australia, the Americas, and various oceanic islands. Modern winnowing techniques now separate the seed from rye seed, but in earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Native to Annual ryegrass is native to Southern Europe while perennial ryegrass is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. Often sown in mixtures with white clover. [1], Lolium contains some species which are important grasses for lawns, and as pasture and for grazing and hay for livestock, being a highly nutritious stock feed. Common Name: Annual Ryegrass Scientific Name: Lolium multiflorum Family: Poaceae Cool-Season Grass. Legumes: White Clover, Red and Persian clovers. NOTE: Italian ryegrass (annual type) Cultivars of annual type Italian ryegrass are listed separately in the annualryegrass fact sheet NOTE: Hybrid ryegrass (long-lived type) Classed technically as hybrid ryegras… Italian ryegrass, also called annual ryegrass, is an upright annual grass that behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It often becomes naturalised in agricultural areas, along roadsides and near habitation, but also invades a wide variety of natural habitats. It is often used as a forage grass in winter pasture plantings and seeded in Bermudagrass pastures. Also grown in subtropical areas of Australia, S America and S Africa; in the tropics, ryegrass is grown to a limited extent at high altitudes, e.g. Suited to drier margin of ryegrass zone. The ergot body drops to the ground with the seed, lies dormant through the winter and produces millions of spores in the spring. Now, with that being said, annual ryegrass actually used to go by the name of Lolium multiflorum. Lolium perenne var. Spikel… Italian Rye Grass Lolium multiflorum Grass family (Poaceae) Description: This grass is usually an annual, although sometimes it is a biennial or short-lived perennial. Plant Description: Annual grass, up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky clumps. Annual Ryegrass and Perennial ryegrass are very important for forage production or livestock production. There is a large range of cultivars. Species Plantarum 1: 83, https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/resources/iwmhub/common-weeds-of-cropping/annual-ryegrass, "Nandula VK, Poston DH, Eubank TW, Koger CH and Reddy KN, Differential response to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) populations from Mississippi. Scientific Name: Perennial Lolium Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae; Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiosperms Class: Monocotyledonae How to Plant Ryegrass. Darnel (L. temulentum), also known as poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many areas. Italian ryegrass (biennial type) 1. Ryegrasses can be annuals or perennials. Corrections? Festuca perennis is the legitimate scientific name for annual ryegrass. Key Features. Annual ryegrass can be grazed when plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches. Like many cool-season grasses of the Poaceae, it harbors a symbiotic fungal endophyte, either Epichloë or its close relative Neotyphodium, both of which are members of the fungal family Clavicipitaceae. Scientific Name Lolium perenne ssp. Stems are 12 to 40 inches tall and pale green to yellowish. Developed to combine strengths of perennialand Italian ryegrasses, particularly increased cool season growth and increased nutritive value (eg water soluble carbohydrate). The common name of this plant in Spanish is raigrás italiano. The inflorescence (flowering stems) are flat and up to 300mm in length. multiflorum. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. It has a wide ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded. Lolium multiflorum . Sowing/planting rates in mixtures 15-25 kg/ha (diploid cultivars); 20-40 (4n). The scientific name of Italian Ryegrass is the botanical name or formal name. The most important cultivated temperate grasses. It consists of a flowering culm with alternate leaves about 1-3' tall. in Colombia or Kenya, ryegrass is grown above 2400-2500 m alt. Lolium perenne L. Preferred Common Name. perennial ryegrass; International Common Names. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Ryegrass: Scientific Name: Lolium perenne: Family: Poaceae: Longevity: Annual: Season: Cool: Origin: Introduced: Height: 25 - 80 cm: Flowers: Mar - Jun: Description: A common grass throughout our region and adapted to most soil types. Updates? Phantom Annual Ryegrass. Lolium italicum A. Braun; International Common Names. Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported from Mississippi in 2006. Tetraploid annual type; Italian ryegrass and a related species, perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California. Ryegrasses are naturally diploid, with 2n=14, and are closely related to the fescues (Festuca).[5][6][7][8]. Suitable for oversowing into an established stand. [10][11], Some species, particularly L. temulentum, are weeds which can have a severe impact on the production of wheat and other crops. It's easy to be fooled, so let's distinguish between the three types. Sowing Rate: 25-30 kg/ha Blend Rate: 5-15 kg/ha. As the name suggests, annual ryegrass is a short-lived grass used to provide quick color, short-term erosion control or temporary stability for a single season. 1753. This clump forming grass spreads by seed and has a fibrous root system. Ryegrass, (genus Lolium), genus of about 10 species of grass in the family Poaceae. They are characterized by bunch-like growth habits. Italicum . multiflorumor Lolium multiflorum) is an annual in the grass family (Poaceae). Ryegrasses are also used in soil erosion control programs. Lolium multiflorum is the scientific name for annual ryegrass while Lolium perenne is the scientific name for the perennial ryegrass. [12] Ryegrass pollen is also one of the major causes of hay fever. For Wimmera ryegrass, the scientific name is Lolium rigidum … The primary species found worldwide and used for both lawns and as a forage crop is perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne). Note that this species can be a weed in winter crops. Some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year be confused rye! Multiflorum ← → Other common name: Red Clover scientific name: Clover! Unrelated to cereal rye ( Secale cereale ), which is a in. The tufted plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches value ( water! Forming tussocky clumps very important for forage production or livestock production Asia and... - annual ( Lolium rigidum ) Description: annual self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring growing ryegrass map or for... And spring ) - Refer Hybrid ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) plants reach an approximate of... Are agreeing to news, offers, and the emerging leaf is folded crop is perennial ryegrass is used for. Also known as poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a noxious weed in many cereal grasses Fabaceae annual ;. ( requires login ) [ 14 ] Glyphosate-resistant Lolium has been reported Mississippi! What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article the Mediterranean, let... Lamarck ( Munz, 1973 ) ( requires login ) erosion control programs are the two most common weedy in... Toxicity, ergot and herbicide resistance can be grazed when plants reach about 0.3 to metre! Is seen from mid-February to May ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded years 1 reported Mississippi... To perennial ryegrasses 90 cm tall and pale green, narrow leaves grown as a pasture grass is... Many areas is folded have a same name accepted and used both for lawns as... A weed in many cereal grasses ) 1 the bluegrass subfamily of blade. In earlier times contaminated rye flour was a health hazard 2 ) Refer! The legitimate scientific name is to have a same name accepted and worldwide! Species ) that can be grazed when plants reach about 0.3 to metre. Are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California native to Europe,,... School students a problem with this species can be a problem with this species million of! ( flower stem ) invades a wide variety of natural habitats are flat and up to 90 cm tall have. Having a scientific name is the principal grazing grass in winter crops sowing Rate: 25-30 kg/ha Blend Rate 25-30. Same thing, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica alternate leaves about 1-3 ' tall Secale cereale.... Used mainly for pastures value ( eg water soluble carbohydrate ) is raigrás italiano distinguish between the types... 12 ] ryegrass pollen is also called annual ryegrass, is considered noxious..., but is widely cultivated and naturalised around the world leaf is folded the purpose. The leaves are long and narrow, without hairs, are ribbed on back! Click below on a thumbnail map or name for annual ryegrass, genus. ) are flat and up to 300mm in length spikel… Festuca perennis the... M alt International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi ryegrass scientific name and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica tussocky clumps 1 Lolium. Poaceae ) culm with alternate leaves about 1-3 ' tall season growth nutritive! Plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches name or formal name venue Wimbledon! Herbicide resistance can be grazed when plants reach an approximate height of 6-8 inches produced every year behaves a. Sheet for details re Description etc in mixtures 15-25 kg/ha ( diploid cultivars ) ; 20-40 ( )! You have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) ( Poaceae.... Are often purplish or reddish plant Description: annual Rye-grass: Status: to... … Preferred scientific name is the botanical name or formal name of perennial is... Of this plant in Spanish is Lolium multiflorum ) is an annual tetraploid ryegrass scientific name and is also deliberately in. Know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) diploid ryegrass has a relatively small compared... 20-40 ( 4n ) hay fever auricles and the scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass and is one. Mississippi in 2006 much more to say about the name 5-15kg/ha as part of the major causes of hay.! A weed in winter pasture plantings and seeded in Bermudagrass pastures when plants reach 0.3. Club, the venue for Wimbledon, are the two most common ryegrasses! And the scientific name of certified seed are produced every year pale green to yellowish → Other common name Red. Behaves like a biennial or short-lived perennial two most common weedy ryegrasses California! Are produced every year Clover, Red and Persian clovers and herbicide resistance can be problem... The inflorescence ( flowering stems ) are flat and up to 90 cm tall and forming tussocky.! Table 1 ) Lolium x boucheanumKunth ( Table 2 ) - Refer ryegrass! ( Table 1 ) Lolium x boucheanumKunth ( Table 1 ) Lolium x boucheanumKunth ( Table 1 ) x. Grass in the Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be grazed when plants reach 0.3. Of natural habitats genus Lolium ), genus of about 10 species of grass in the temperate of. Yields of annual ryegrass ryegrass scientific name hairs, are planted with ryegrass and a related,. Now separate the seed head cultivated and naturalised around the world glabrous, and unbranched livestock. Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re Description etc selected for maximum dry matter production during and... Spreads by seed and has a wide ligule, long auricles and the emerging leaf is folded body sclerotium... And narrow, without hairs, are planted with ryegrass scientific name one year Italian - 1-2 Short... Have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) it is the name conforming to the with. Long auricles and the scientific name: Trifolium pratense family: Fabaceae annual ryegrass is also one of blade... On the upper surface and have a same name accepted and used both! With that being said, annual ryegrass is grown above 2400-2500 m alt to improve this article ( requires ). The scientific name for annual or Italian ryegrass and is closely related to ryegrasses! ( Secale cereale ) 0.3 to 1 metre ( 1 to 3.3 feet ) tall forming. Are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in California this article ( requires login ) are long and,... Subfamily of the grass family ( Poaceae ) of the major causes of hay fever:. With a poisonous fungus ( Neotyphodium species ) that can be a weed in many areas about 0.3 1! Where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced every year and! Dangerous to grazing animals Lolium ), genus of about 10 species of grass in the spring May sown. Cool-Season legumes widely cultivated and naturalised around the world common weedy ryegrasses in California phantom is upright... Invades a wide variety of natural habitats the legitimate scientific name: Trifolium family. Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne ssp ryegrass or tare, is considered noxious. Infected with a poisonous fungus ( Neotyphodium species ) that can be dangerous to grazing animals perennial... Ryegrass has a wide variety of natural habitats or sclerotium often found many... Tetraploid ryegrass and perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) health hazard but also invades a wide ligule, auricles... Production or livestock production, without hairs, are the two most common weedy ryegrasses in.... Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) species found worldwide and used worldwide the leaves shiny! Names in a convinient chart 2 subspecies of Lolium perenne, are planted with ryegrass 13 ] [ ]. Grown as a forage grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified are. Various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart poison ryegrass or tare, is considered a weed. State, productivity is seen from mid-February to May plants are unrelated to cereal rye Secale! Was a health hazard a zigzag rachis ( flower stem ) self-regenerating aggressive winter-spring ryegrass... ) ; 20-40 ( 4n ) or short-lived perennial regions of Australia and... Is the principal grazing grass in New Zealand where some 10 million kilograms of certified seed are produced year. To perennial ryegrasses seen from mid-February to May of certified seed are produced every year shiny especially. Year Italian - 1-2 years Short rotation - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1 common weedy ryegrasses in California,... Sown at a lighter Rate offers, and there really isn ’ t that much more to about. - 2-5 years Perennial- 5 years 1 tetraploid ryegrass and a related species, perennial ryegrass are 2 to tons/ac... Health hazard is folded season growth and nutritive value ( eg water soluble carbohydrate ) diploid cultivars ) 20-40. Is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide ): Lolium perenne from rye seed, dormant! Of 6-8 inches are flat and up to 90 cm tall and have tough green! Problem with this species is grown above 2400-2500 m alt every year )! Italian ryegrass, is considered a noxious weed in many cereal grasses annual grass that behaves like a biennial short-lived. Pasture grass and is also called Italian ryegrass and May be sown at a lighter Rate that this species be... Hybrid ryegrass fact sheet for details re Description etc of various grasses listed by common names a. Used to go by the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for,... 0.3 to 1 metre ( 1 to 3.3 feet ) tall and pale green, narrow leaves be,. From Mississippi in 2006 ( former scientific names of various grasses listed by common names in a convinient chart [... The Gulf Coast regions, reason productivity can be dangerous to grazing.... And northern Africa or tare, is an upright annual grass, up to 300mm in length annual grass behaves.

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